Udev Initramfs

udev is created by the udevd daemon /dev/. It is made more so by the fact that each individual distribution has its own tools to build the image, as well as its own set of tools inside it. On Sun, 26 Jul 2015 12:10:26 +0200 Christoph Lohmann <[email protected] For example /dev/cdrom can link to /dev/scd0. RKhunter can only report on changes, but not on what has caused the change, it is reactive. org I'm using debian unstable (udev 0. c like this:. The udev system (see Section 3. pre-pivot – bevor das initramfs verlassen wird und in das finale root-Verzeichnis gewechselt wird. The scripts in the initqueue hooks are generally put there by udev rules running /sbin/initqueue - see the section called “Run pre-udev hook (genrules scripts)” above. Read our privacy policy>. conf /etc/init/udev-finish. Please replace "x86_64-linux-g. If you use a virtual machine, make the sure disk image is in 'raw' format, meaning no headers or such on the image. We will not cover creating your own symlinks here (may be added later). The udev package comes with an extensive set of rules that match against exported values of the event and properties of the discovered. 2017 um 17:15 schrieb [email protected] img and contains the kernel modules of the currently active kernel with version. net> wrote: > Greetings. The two main ways to create small filesystems are to start from scratch and add just what you need, or to start with a large working system and trim it down. dracut(8) - Linux man page Name. It is the successor of initrd. By the way, with regard to your comment about udev upstream requiring an initramfs to mount /usr, we have a udev fork in development that has the goal of restoring support for this, among other things. Ubuntu's + udev has /lib/udev/firmware_helper instead, and the udev hook + copies this to the initramfs for us. 12+ kernel with sysfs and hotplug support; this is because it populates /dev with the `mdev' mini-udev tool inside busybox, and switches root filesystems with the `switch_root' tool, which chroots only after erasing the entire contents of the initramfs. In some cases you may want to extract the initramfs image file to check built-in contents. However in my case dracut file is all correct and intact. 50-11 Linux kernel, which file in the /boot directory contains the kernel configuration parameters? config-3. Re: Q: How to include custom udev rule into initramfs ? Post by TrevorH » Sat Sep 15, 2018 4:10 pm Everything under /sys is created by code in the kernel itself and just provides a view onto or a means of altering various "knobs" inside the system. This hook alone is responsible for quite a bit of size (~700-800 KiB with LZ4 and LZOP, less with other algorithms) in the initramfs image. I haven't had the chance to try this yet. The alternate install disk is not capable of installing additional packages at runtime, because of the limitations of the busybox environment. Wird dieser Link nun in Konfigurationsdateien verwendet, gibt es keine Probleme mehr, auch wenn das Touchpad beim nächsten Booten einen. 6 kernel series. udev is created by the udevd daemon /dev/. The only thing not solved yet is how to get the beast started > without /dev/console and /dev/null. update-initramfs -u -k all;. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Yesterday, I compiled a kernel with BTRFS support built-in, and ext4 as module, and so far, I've been running on a BTRFS root filesystem just fine. L'initramfs est un ensemble complet de répertoires que vous pouvez trouver dans un système de fichiers racine normal. 1) Last updated on AUGUST 04, 2018. HOOKS="base udev autodetect modconf block mdadm_udev filesystems keyboard. Bugs fixed during the Lucid release cycle This is a report of bug tasks from Launchpad-Bugs-Fixed in the Lucid changes mailing list. If you would like to use the OpenLogic mirrors that are hosted within the. switch_root removes the whole filesystem hierarchy of the initramfs, chroot()s to the real root device and calls /sbin/init with the specified arguments. linuz (カーネル) + initz (initramfs) の合計サイズは 2. Ubuntu: rkhunter warning about /etc/. I'm guessing that's where it's looking for > > /dev/console from. 04 release to 'Ubuntu 12. bootup(7) dracut(8) Info. dependency problems running apt-get -f install on Ubuntu plymouth mountall upstart passwd resolvconf ifupdown procps udev dmsetup initramfs-tools libdevmapper1. /etc/ udev/ udev. There is no actual problem at the moment. Durch die oben angegebene Udev-Regel wird beim Booten automatisch ein symbolischer Link auf die aktuelle Gerätedatei unter /dev/input/touchpad abgelegt, der immer auf die korrekte Gerätedatei verweist. Sometimes we need or want to change volume groups and/or logical volume names. After the root file system has been found, it is checked for errors and mounted. 4 LTS' using sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get upgrade I now need to remove phpmyadmin by doing the following sudo apt-get remove. Introduction. de: > Hi, > > I'm running into some troubles to enable the predictable network interface names for a system upgraded from Jessie. Reconfigure rkhunter to avoid false positive warnings on Debian 5. Non-systemd init systems and non-dracut initramfs image generators need to change the init scripts. service dracut-initqueue. udevd : SYSFS{}= will be removed in a future udev version, please use ATTR{}= to match the event device Come and Tech it ! Linux , Sysadmin December 30, 2009 June 10, 2016 0 Minutes. Finally we run the following to take account of the initramfs changes at boot: grub2-mkconfig Once the kernel module is loaded (auto upon device being found or via modprobe bcache) there should be a: /sys/fs/bcache/ directory. For example /dev/cdrom can link to /dev/scd0. 16推出重写的通知系统. 04 udevadm trigger is not permitted while udev is unconfigured. They are created by udev (on PC Linux) or some other device manager. 15 kernel and the required udev 071 for our hardware-detection needs. I read in the main gentoo DMCrypt_LUKS guide that really the only difference compared to a regular gentoo install is setting up your partitions differently, installing an initramfs and LUKS then you can switch back to the install guide. Alles aus der chroot Umgebung herraus. service Description. This will generate a general purpose initramfs image, with all possible functionality resulting of the combination of the installed dracut modules and system tools. switch_root removes the whole filesystem hierarchy of the initramfs, chroot()s to the real root device and calls /sbin/init with the specified arguments. cfg is, although on a non-UEFI system both are usually in /boot). 12+ kernel with sysfs and hotplug support; this is because it populates /dev with the `mdev' mini-udev tool inside busybox, and switches root filesystems with the `switch_root' tool, which chroots only after erasing the entire contents of the initramfs (taking great care not to recurse off that filesystem!). init on initramfs This program performs all actions needed to mount the proper root file system, like providing kernel functionality for the needed file system and device drivers for mass storage controllers with udev. initramfs Helpful? Please support me on Patreon: https://www. initramfs es si recuerdo correctamente dónde está montado el sistema de archivos ram inicial durante el proceso de arranque del sistema. Read our privacy policy>. The only thing not solved yet is how to get the beast started > without /dev/console and /dev/null. To add this file to the initramfs simply follow these. If it doesn't work, at least is not much effort. Click Connect to open a console window for the virtual machine. 27, which as any 2. py [1]) uses udev events, I load events using a XMLRPC server running on thin client. I tried to install several packages like nodejs and iphython, and also tried apt-get update followed by dist-upgrade. Browse the Gentoo Git repositories. initramfs does not need to contain every module that a user might want to use, instead it only contains the modules which are required to access the root filesystem. Alles aus der chroot Umgebung herraus. Do you know how to convert an initramfs into an initrd, or can the Pi use an initramfs as well? I'll be Googling this myself. AFAIK initramfs is always used. All of the columns are sortable; give them a click!. udev: waiting for uevents to be processed on my Gentoo. I haven't had the chance to try this yet. This is all driven off of device availability. Aborting MAKEDEV invocation. dm-mpath-lvm. Initramfs generator using udev. L'initramfs est un ensemble complet de répertoires que vous pouvez trouver dans un système de fichiers racine normal. 5 from ESXi to Nutanix AHV. 4 LTS' using sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get upgrade I now need to remove phpmyadmin by doing the following sudo apt-get remove. conf /etc/init/udev-finish. Normally, Linux like Red Hat has the option to just change boot priority of kernel in /etc/grub. The choice of partition method can affect the resizing functionality, as described in the following sections. Systemd in the Initramfs Harald Hoyer Red Hat. It uses cpio instead of a simple ext2 filesystem image. (LP: #1217041). As @nuclearmistake points out, udev is something that breaks in apt-get but the errors should not cause any issues in WSL. initramfs es si recuerdo correctamente dónde está montado el sistema de archivos ram inicial durante el proceso de arranque del sistema. Durch die oben angegebene Udev-Regel wird beim Booten automatisch ein symbolischer Link auf die aktuelle Gerätedatei unter /dev/input/touchpad abgelegt, der immer auf die korrekte Gerätedatei verweist. arch-linux udev initramfs zfs share | improve this question. I have recently upgraded my Ubuntu 12. As the default debian-installer for sarge installed 2. 2 by downloading the iso image on a usb flash drive (no cd / dvd on my laptop). #udev_log="info". For more information about init, refer to Section 8. java es creado por sun-java (y también es posible por OpenJDK) /dev/. For more information about initramfs, refer to Section 13. Use mount --move in initramfs-tools udev script Due to recent changes. The system's udev rules may possibly be copied into the initramfs, so they may be executed before /sbin/hdparm is available (and /etc/hdparm. Learn to create and upload an Azure virtual hard disk (VHD) that contains a CentOS-based Linux operating system. Browse the Gentoo Git repositories. (LP: #1217041). udev es creado por udevd daemon /dev/. This is true since I use initramfs as my root filesystem and no real root filesystem has been mounted. For more information about init on initramfs, refer to Section 9. Centos 7, grub2, problems putting root on raid1 md array Hi! I have just installed Centos 7 in text mode and I have created md raid1 arrays for /boot /home and / - respectively /dev/md0, /dev/md2 and /dev/md1. hook I have created a patch for initramfs. My understandings now is that this initramfs should contain all the data required to assemble the RAID array at boot in userland. Run "update-initramfs -u" to update the temporary file system file for all kernels. But some people will want to try it, and maybe this thread will help them. 9 master-next-2. I knew the kernel was using some ram-disk but didn't know much more. hook suffix. So, at some point between execution of the real init and completed startup, something overwrites the owner of by device, but both before and afterward the rule gets applied correctly. After the root file system has been found, it is checked for errors and mounted. My name is Deepak Prasad and I am very passionate about my work which mostly includes and revolves around Linux/Unix platform, virtualisation, openstack cloud, hardware, firmware, security, network, scripting, automation and similar stuff. The initramfs is a complete set of directories that you would find on a normal root filesystem. I'm not sure I like or agree with that philosophy. The above has the consequense of yaird not able to provide an official upgrade path from sarge to etch. # initramfs in Ubuntu 10. service (8), receives device uevents directly from the kernel whenever a device is added or removed from the system, or it changes its state. hook I have created a patch for initramfs. After running the hook, dracut checks initqueue/finished again, and exits the loop if they all succeed. rules files, in particular those from /etc. You can choose what package need build-in initramfs. I would like to remove udev from initramfs. If this has been successful, the initramfs is cleaned and the init program on the root file system is executed. If you choose to use a custom kernel that does not require an initrd or if you use a different initrd generator, some of the information may not be relevant for you. 50-11 According to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), what is the path to the Linux kernel source and may be a symbolic link to the real Linux source code?. À propos de initramfs La seule fonction d'un initramfs est de monter le système de fichier racine. 40: A command line tool for updating and displaying info about boot loaders: initramfs-debug: 1. Finally we run the following to take account of the initramfs changes at boot: grub2-mkconfig Once the kernel module is loaded (auto upon device being found or via modprobe bcache) there should be a: /sys/fs/bcache/ directory. When booting with systemd 220 on initramfs, the udev hook triggers the following assertion: Assertion 'manager->pid == getpid()' failed at src/udev/udevd. > > In our lvm2 package, I enabled lvmetad - this is a metadata caching > daemon that reacts to events from udev. udev is a generic device manager running as a daemon on a Linux system and listening (via a netlink socket) to uevents the kernel sends out if a new device is initialized or a device is removed from the system. The hypervisors for preparation that are covered in this article are Hyper-V, kernel-based virtual machine (KVM), and VMware. 참고로 위 이미지에서도 나오지만 udev는 initramfs에서 파생된 daemon이기 때문에 rule이 바뀌거나 udev 환경이 바뀔 경우 initramfs 역시 그 환경에 맞춰서 바뀌어야 한다. The only thing not solved yet is how to get the beast started > without /dev/console and /dev/null. The scripts in the initqueue hooks are generally put there by udev rules running /sbin/initqueue - see the section called “Run pre-udev hook (genrules scripts)” above. However, the result is different. update-initramfs refuses to see root partition on Khadas VIM2 (v1. Dracut Tools used on the system Event based with udev. It is possible for a package manager database to become maliciously corrupted. This service runs all dracut hooks before udevd is started in the initramfs. The initramfs has (basically) one purpose—mounting the root file system so the boot process can transition to the real rootfs. service (8), receives device uevents directly from the kernel whenever a device is added or removed from the system, or it changes its state. It is bundled into a single cpio archive and compressed with one of several compression algorithms. This allows discovery to run in parallel, and to progressively cascade into arbitrary nestings of LVM, RAID or encryption to get at the root file system. 12 libpam-systemd libpcre3 libsystemd-daemon0 libsystemd-login0 libudev1 systemd-services tzdata udev 16 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. com/en-us/commandline/wsl/faq Scroll down to: Why are there so many errors when I run apt-get. org, a friendly and active Linux Community. Initramfs is just the newer way for Linux to build an initrd. Installation. At the same time, udev also handles all user space events raised while hardware devices are added into the system or removed from it, including firmware loading as required by certain devices. In some cases you may want to extract the initramfs image file to check built-in contents. I'm guessing that's where it's looking for > > /dev/console from. dracut takes care of everything udev related. OK, I Understand. On a server running the 3. gz is generate by ltib. I would like to remove udev from initramfs. Run "update-initramfs -u" to update the temporary file system file for all kernels. In the following I assume, that you have partitioned your SD card, so that it contains two partitions: 128MB (or more) FAT32 partition, which contains kernel and initramfs for u-boot; 2GB (or more) ext4 partition, which contains the rootfs. Gentoo has an initramfs guide and an initramfs wiki page which mention udev among other things. # see udev(7) for details # # udevd is started in the initramfs, so when this file is modified the # initramfs should be rebuilt. In RHEL6, as per your comments, calls to modprobe made by udev decides driver loading order and we can see very few module names in standard script. git: AUR Package Repositories | click here to return to the package base details page. === From libabc to libkmod: designing core libraries ===. 04 (Disco Dingo) Ubuntu Universe amd64. One Init for both worlds. Dracut is using udev to set up raid devices, and obviously that is not working. Welcome to LinuxQuestions. Lately he created a cross distribution initramfs generator called dracut. If you are experienced with ubuntu and initramfs / initrd creation you can install ubuntu directly onto the iscsi target using the desktop (i386 or amd64) install CD (more on that later). Packages affected: initramfs-tools, hotplug, grepmap, udev, klibc, linux-image-*, modutils Summary As discussed in HardwareDetection there are many compelling reasons to select both the 2. So, at some point between execution of the real init and completed startup, something overwrites the owner of by device, but both before and afterward the rule gets applied correctly. 50-11 According to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), what is the path to the Linux kernel source and may be a symbolic link to the real Linux source code?. OK, I Understand. By joining our community you will have the ability to post topics, receive our newsletter, use the advanced search, subscribe to threads and access many other special features. Hi Patrick Am 27. In some cases you may want to extract the initramfs image file to check built-in contents. conf initrd /initramfs-linux. However, it isn’t working in my case because /usr is a bind mount to a subdir on an lvm volume,. bootup(7) dracut(8) Info. conf needs to be changed. pre-pivot – bevor das initramfs verlassen wird und in das finale root-Verzeichnis gewechselt wird. switch_root removes the whole filesystem hierarchy of the initramfs, chroot()s to the real root device and calls /sbin/init with the specified arguments. Normally, Linux like Red Hat has the option to just change boot priority of kernel in /etc/grub. This page describes the steps needed to change an LVM (Logical Volume Manager) Volume Group name which includes the the Root partition ("/"). After the root file system has been found, it is checked for errors and mounted. Non-systemd init systems and non-dracut initramfs image generators need to change the init scripts. It needs busybox 1. At the same time, udev also handles all user space events raised while hardware devices are added into the system or removed from it, including firmware loading as required by certain devices. It needs busybox 1. Unlike previous version, on RHEL 7 using cpio command for the initramfs image file will not extract all files (or will give some error). For more information about init, refer to Section 8. By default, gzip compression # is used. devfsd와 hotplug를 계승하는 udev는 주로 /dev 디렉터리의 장치 노드를 관리한다. A popular way to do this is for example via udev rules. rules if you ever want to enable this back, you just have to recreate this link back and on the first boot the rules will be regenerated. When the scenario is tested multiple times with the same disk, sometimes it fails to identify the root volume. Udev Login ˃Focused on explaining how to decrease size and boot time Remove or trim unnecessary components (userspace) ‒Switch to UClibc ‒Switch to Busybox ‒Remove Udev Remove Kernel drivers and modules ‒Drop networking support ‒"Cripple" busybox ‒"Cripple" kernel (acpi,smp,ipc,futex,printk) >> 5. This will generate a general purpose initramfs image, with all possible functionality resulting of the combination of the installed dracut modules and system tools. This will reduce the size of the initramfs image significantly. blkid is responsible for scanning the hard drive and conveying partition information to udev so that it can mount the partitions. 二十五、udev的coldplug模式 内核在启动时已经检测到了系统的硬件设备,并把硬件设备信息通过sysfs内核虚拟文件系统导出。udev扫描sysfs文件系统,根据硬件设备信息生成 热插拔(hotplug)事件,udev再读取这些事件,生成对应的硬件设备文件。. Udev requirement The big advantage of creating your own initramfs images is that you can eliminate udev. 231 232 Contents of initramfs: 233----- 234 235 An initramfs archive is a complete self-contained root filesystem for Linux. However if you think your question is a bit stupid, then this is the right place for you to post it. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. 15 kernel and the required udev 071 for our hardware-detection needs. 了解了udev的coldplug的机理,我们就试验一下用udev自动加载设备驱动模块,并生成硬件设备文件。 (1)从 /sbin 目录下拷贝udevd、udevtrigger、udevsettle程序到image目录下的sbin目录下,并用ldd命令找到它们所需要的动态库文件,拷贝到image目录下的lib目录下。. When the scenario is tested multiple times with the same disk, sometimes it fails to identify the root volume. Later in the boot process, after changing the root file system, it is necessary to regenerate the devices. - debian/multipath-tools. Udev ist konfiguriert, hab mehrmals getest udev zu reinstallieren, genauso dpkg-reconfigure von udev, initramfs-tools, den kernel. udev: waiting for uevents to be processed on my Gentoo. udev es creado por udevd daemon /dev/. Most initial root file systems implement /linuxrc or /init as a shell script and thus include a minimal shell (usually /bin/ash ) along with some essential user-space utilities (usually the. The above has the consequense of yaird not able to provide an official upgrade path from sarge to etch. initramfs-tools-bin libapt-inst1. d/" directory. dracut contains various modules which are driven by the event-based udev. udev presence implies active udev. genkernel --install --udev --lvm --luks initramfs (I used --noramdisk-modules which will prevent the computer from booting and forget to use --luks which is needed to have cryptsetup) Thank you a lot for the time you took to help me. It is made more so by the fact that each individual distribution has its own tools to build the image, as well as its own set of tools inside it. It is possible for a package manager database to become maliciously corrupted. Hi, yes, it still works. I'm developing an embeded thin client system based on initramfs using debian kernel bins, and libs: www. minimal initramfs without udev View linux-ck. 27, which as any 2. service man page. Learn to create and upload an Azure virtual hard disk (VHD) that contains a CentOS-based Linux operating system. You can choose what package need build-in initramfs. d/" directory. 8采用Unicode 12. At the same time, udev also handles all user space events raised while hardware devices are added into the system or removed from it, including firmware loading as required by certain devices. OK, I Understand. Using udf fs instead of fat32 to get around 4GB file issue while still maintaining wide support. Currently the udev rules use incremental assembly like this: mdadm -I /dev/mdraid-member Hmmmdoes dracut use udev during initramfs time? Yes, it uses udev for everything, making discovery of / consistent with the discovery of other storage devices. initramfs does not need to contain every module that a user might want to use, instead it only contains the modules which are required to access the root filesystem. The two main ways to create small filesystems are to start from scratch and add just what you need, or to start with a large working system and trim it down. The scripts in the initqueue hooks are generally put there by udev rules running /sbin/initqueue - see the section called “Run pre-udev hook (genrules scripts)” above. It is also possible to edit any files in /etc/ if for example /etc/multipath. Note that the udev-watchdog is disabled while the system is suspended to RAM, in order to avoid a race condition when resuming from suspend, which used to occasionally trigger the emergency shutdown (see #11729). Paul Philippov home is where ~/ is How to fix slow boot with ATA errors. conf in the initramfs. d/udev-finish /etc/init/udev-fallback-graphics. Removing udev from initramfs. On 1 November 2012 02:05, Thomas Bächler wrote: > I discovered some new awesomeness in LVM2 (okay, not THAT new, but > still, so far unknown to me). A VM on ODA Doesn't Boot Due to XFS Filesystem Corruption. The initramfs is a complete set of directories that you would find on a normal root filesystem. initramfs (or early userspace) is a root filesystem loaded by the kernel at an early stage of the boot process. - I have created one simple udev rule [2]:. The initramfs contains all the modules needed for using storage devices and filesystems, and contains the software (udev, the dynamic device manager) to detect which of these modules needs to be load. The udev package comes with an extensive set of rules that match against exported values of the event and properties of the discovered. How to enable udev package in yocto recipe for initramfs build? Please provide sample yocto bb file. java es creado por sun-java (y también es posible por OpenJDK) /dev/. To ensure all. If you would like to use the OpenLogic mirrors that are hosted within the. The initramfs is a complete set of directories that you would find on a normal root filesystem. rules is just a link to the real file /etc/udev/persistent-net-generator. The needed modules for the root file system may be loaded by init on initramfs. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. It's because files in /dev are not created by kernel. Udev requirement The big advantage of creating your own initramfs images is that you can eliminate udev. In RHEL6, as per your comments, calls to modprobe made by udev decides driver loading order and we can see very few module names in standard script. d/" directory. Find more information about udev in Chapter 12, Dynamic Kernel Device Management with udev. This means that you claim that the problem has been dealt with. This initramfs, along with the kernel and GRUB (bootloader) data, is typically stored in a separate boot partition. On 1 November 2012 02:05, Thomas Bächler wrote: > I discovered some new awesomeness in LVM2 (okay, not THAT new, but > still, so far unknown to me). udev is a device manager for the Linux kernel. 0: Small image capable of booting a device. The udev package comes with an extensive set of rules that match against exported values of the event and properties of the discovered. In two previous blog posts I described how to migrate Windows 2012R2 from VMware ESXi to Nutanix AHV and SUSE 11SP4 from VMware ESXi to Nutanix AHVHV Today quick guide how to Migrate RHEL 6. It appears your boot partition is intact. The udev system (see Section 3. conf /etc/init/udevmonitor. 了解了udev的coldplug的机理,我们就试验一下用udev自动加载设备驱动模块,并生成硬件设备文件。 (1)从 /sbin 目录下拷贝udevd、udevtrigger、udevsettle程序到image目录下的sbin目录下,并用ldd命令找到它们所需要的动态库文件,拷贝到image目录下的lib目录下。. The scripts in the initqueue hooks are generally put there by udev rules running /sbin/initqueue - see the section called “Run pre-udev hook (genrules scripts)” above. It is made more so by the fact that each individual distribution has its own tools to build the image, as well as its own set of tools inside it. If this has been successful, the initramfs is cleaned and the init program on the root file system is executed. The binaries called from these rules are sometimes located on /usr/bin, or link against libraries in /usr/lib, or use data files from /usr/share. In RHEL6, as per your comments, calls to modprobe made by udev decides driver loading order and we can see very few module names in standard script. Hi, I've been looking for simple method to create a simple initramfs to just mount the /usr partition. 125 126 Populating initramfs: 127----- 128 129 The 2. Search Search. 15 kernel and the required udev 071 for our hardware-detection needs. Dracut looks to replace the initramfs patchwork Creating initramfs images, for use by the kernel at "early boot" time, is a rather messy business. As the default debian-installer for sarge installed 2. 2 Comments on "Ubuntu with Grub2 + LUKS encrypted LVM root + hidden USB keyfile" 1 PePa said at 2:15 pm on February 27th, 2013: I don't think you need the cryptops kernel command option on Ubuntu, at least, I don't need it on 10. 2017 um 17:15 schrieb [email protected] > > > > 1) You have no init in initramfs, so it goes ahead and mounts whatever > > root= points to over it. These drivers may include special drivers for certain kinds of hard disks or even network drivers to access a network file system. index: openembedded-core 2011-1 daisy danny denzil dizzy dora dylan fido jethro krogoth krogoth-next master master-next master-next-1. [email protected]:~# cat /etc/udev/udev. Le but n’est pas ici de revenir aux principes fondateurs du projet Yocto, pour lesquels je vous recommanderais plutôt les précédents articles de ce blog :. conf /etc/init/udev. Udev Login ˃Focused on explaining how to decrease size and boot time Remove or trim unnecessary components (userspace) ‒Switch to UClibc ‒Switch to Busybox ‒Remove Udev Remove Kernel drivers and modules ‒Drop networking support ‒"Cripple" busybox ‒"Cripple" kernel (acpi,smp,ipc,futex,printk) >> 5. Go to the better-initramfs source dir and follow: root # cd /opt/better-initramfs root # git pull root # less ChangeLog. Hi Patrick Am 27. How to rebuild the initial ramdisk image in Red Hat Enterprise Linux How to rebuild initial ram disk image in Red Hat Enterprise Linux How to remake or recreate the initrd or initramfs The /etc/lvm/lvm. conf /etc/init/udev-finish. Udev requirement The big advantage of creating your own initramfs images is that you can eliminate udev. A Quick Dracut Module. Centos 7, grub2, problems putting root on raid1 md array Hi! I have just installed Centos 7 in text mode and I have created md raid1 arrays for /boot /home and / - respectively /dev/md0, /dev/md2 and /dev/md1. initramfs-tools-bin libapt-inst1. 92bubuntu63) but it is not going to be install Depends: util-linux ( > 2. 8采用Unicode 12. To fix wrong fs recognition work around boot with. determine which modules to include when generating initrd/initramfs. This article is basically how to guide for booting SUSE Linux system from the previous kernel after kernel upgrade process. dracut-pre-udev. hook to parse the rules and include all needed programs, I hope this can be. I've looked through tons of posts, I can't seem to get a udev rule to trigger when unplugging an HDMI or DP. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: